Comment on “How The Neanderthals Became The Basques”

This article traces the fascinating story of what happened to the Neanderthals — they merged with the rest of humanity, and most of us now contain some Neanderthal genes!

To return to the main article, How The Neanderthals Became The Basques, click HERE.

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  • commentmaster  On April 25, 2012 at 9:19 am

    I read with interest your article on line about the possibility that Basques may contain more genetic matter from the Neanderthals than other Europeans. I am a fan of both Basques and Neanderthals. I am O negative, and I visited the beautiful Basque contry before the terrorism began. However, as for phenotype, I have none of the purported Neanderthal characteristics, alas.

    Maybe I missed it but I saw no reference in your article to Svante Paabo or Spencer Wells, both of whom are very visible in the study of questions relating to early human populations, Neanderthals, and such like.

    A linguist would object to your easy dismissal of what the Basque language really has and does not have. There are, for example, more Spanish words than izquierdo borrowed from the Basque. Sadly, I don’t know Basque and can’t be specific in this matter. However, I can’t believe that it could be in any way a descendant of a Neanderthal language.



    • Nick Veltjens  On January 8, 2015 at 11:47 pm

      Hi David Noel
      I read your very interesting article on our link to the Neanderthals. I searched for Rh- articles , because I am B-, and have read a fair bit about nutrition and how blood types appear to have been mutations [Dr Peter J. D’Adamo – Eat right for your Type – ISBN 0 7126 7716 X]:
      • To accommodate the troubles associated with urban living (Blood type A) that followed the development of agriculture in the Levant,
      • The ability to accept milk (Blood type B) when man moved East with their cattle and populated the steppes of Russia and Mongolia via India and China, and
      • Blood type AB (only 600 years ago) to provide the benefit of both A and B.
      The fact that North American Indians are still the original African type O is because they arrived there before the Bering Strait was submerged by rising seawater levels, and were consquently cut off.
      The main reason why I am writing to you is my other interest of reading about Atlantis.
      One of the hypotheses I am happy with is that Atlantis did in fact exist, and that it was located along the junction of the American and Euro-African tectonic plates, as suggested by Otto Muck [The Secrets of Atlantis].
      He talks of an 11km diameter asteroid, the trajectory of which was changed by the constellation of Earth, our Moon, the Sun and Venus on 5 June 8,498 BCE, and landed near Florida in the Atlantic with catastrophic repercussions. The above junction of the tectonic plates was broken open by violent eruptions and Atlantis, he thinks located on an island between those plates, sank as a result.
      Every record of the people of Atlantis was one of a people of a very high civilization with incredible technical and scientifically advanced knowledge. The Egyptians believed their origin may be linked to this mythical people, referred to it as “the First Time”. Plato refers to Atlantis as a ‘metallurgical’ culture (clearly a reference to volcanic metals) existing 9,000 years prior to Solon. Even in the earliest recollection of oral history, religion and science were interwoven. This can be ‘traced’ as far back as about 10,000 BCE, when the ‘tall men with light reflecting clothes’ visited China, India and Egypt and taught them of their creation story, and its connection with the elements and the stars.
      My hunch is therefore that, because of the proximity of the likely location of Atlantis opposite Gibraltar in the Atlantic Ocean and along the boundaries of the tectonic plates, there could well have been close interaction of western coastal European peoples with the Atlantians by trade and social contact, and with your suggestion of their uniqueness of the Basques, they may well have been direct descendants.
      Nobody knows how long these people had lived on that Island, but if they were indeed such an advanced cultural people, it would have to have been a few thousand years. And if the Basques were to be their kin, the higher mental analytical you mentioned could well be a hint.
      It is just a hunch, but you may be able to follow it up along a different track.
      Another book by Gavin Menzies purports to have discovered Atlantis; he maintains that it was not in the Atlantic, but that it was Crete and the Minoans as the advanced culture that drove the Bronze Age. Also brilliant navigators and mathematicians, shipbuilders, and traders. They had, according to his research, travelled to North America in order to mine the purest copper in the lakes district, and with this exclusively obtained raw material became the dominant force in the Mediterranean arena and beyond. While this is valuable research on Crete, I do not believe that it is about Atlantis. However, as I suggested to him, the fact that the people of create may have, according to him, have some origin from some people on the Balkan peninsula around 7,000 BCE, that may have represented a link towards survivors of the real Atlantic disaster.
      I hope this might inspire you to step sideways for a moment to indulge yourself on lateral adventures.
      Best wishes
      PS: I have incorporated some of my above thoughts in my book “World without war, made possible by empowered individuals”, although only my reading before 2009.


  • bill soule  On May 5, 2012 at 7:24 pm

    I am a Soule and it seems my head is huge (size 8), as were my ancestors’. Another trait is an addition to the vertebrae (something extra) also passed the Vertebrae on to son. Not sure about daughter — nor if they passed it on to grand kids. Supposedly the Soules went to England and they were chased out by the church and Henry, into Holland, where they published anti King stuff, and then, as separatists, were chased out by Henry by threat of war, and then, on to the new world on the Mayflower as George Soule. I don’t think the Rh- was ever a factor with us.

    (David Noel comments: This is particularly interesting, in that the original article suggested an extra vertebra might indicate Basque ancestry).


    • Enedina  On October 23, 2012 at 12:29 am

      The Basque are aliens from another world, yes they are Elves mixed with other Humans from wars, they married others and the Basque made their surnames Basque. Others became family this way. The French called them Basque, after hearing their strange language. In 500 BC Clans of people tried to take the Basque, but they were not called Basque yet. Anyways the Basque won the war and be-friended them, called themselves Celtic, and went with them to see all this land the Clans told them about. Many years later the French called them Basque and the Spanish called them Vocones from the word Basque. We are Asian-Minors and we have family everywhere. It’s the Oriental Pryanness Mountains.

      We are not Neanderthals, we come from Tubol (Japath, Noah’s son), Noah’s grandson, and our language comes from the very first language spoken. The language is not like any one on this face of the earth. Our language comes from Heaven, in Heaven they speak Euskara, which is the Basque Language.

      Red hair comes genetically from the Vikings they befriended, I told you we are in other different countries. We are fairest of the fair and to light bronze skin color, and we have every eye color, just like others. We are mainly Persian (Persians are Elf people, this was told to me by my grandfather, we are Faerie People.) WE ARE NOT NEANDERTHAL EVER! The Basque are related to each other, we are all family! Soule is a family name, and my name is Enedina Diana Walden Celaya-Welling (nickname is Nini)


  • Chafik BANANA  On June 25, 2012 at 8:01 am

    The Neanderthal in moroccan country are Bérbér people, it’s sur..they lives in Atlas mountain and southern morocco Deraa..I need more informations, please send me in this adress:


  • Atlantis  On July 8, 2012 at 3:20 pm

    The Basque are remnants of cro Magnon, not Neanderthal. Cro magnon is the origin of RH negative Blood, according to the encyclopedia britanica, and the Basque have some of the highest pecentage of RH negative blood on earth.


    • christj  On August 9, 2012 at 11:37 pm

      Well the neanderthals also had rh negative blood. Please make citations when speaking so definitively about the origins of rh negative blood.


    • Ramon  On January 10, 2013 at 9:23 pm

      Recent DNA studies show otherwise. How old is that hard copy Britannica?

      David Noel replies: No, you are mistaken here. See, for example “Neanderthals, Humans Interbred, DNA Proves” ( Some extracts from this:
      “Between 1-4 percent of the DNA of many humans living today likely came from Neanderthals. People of European and Asian heritage are most likely to carry the Neanderthal genes. It’s official: Most of us are part Neanderthal. The first draft sequence of the Neanderthal genome has provided the strongest evidence yet that modern humans and Neanderthals interbred and that all non-Africans today have Neanderthal gene fragments in their genetic codes.”


      • Atlantis  On April 21, 2015 at 7:17 pm

        what does admixture have to do with rh factor blood? Once again, cro magnon is where rh negative blood comes from, as well as whatever else is attributed to modern man… as opposed to anatomically correct


  • Robin Richardson  On July 8, 2012 at 7:34 pm

    This is a very fascinating article. I have also read that negative blood line individuals do not have the same allele on their DNA, which would indicate that the negative blood line originates from a different species. The medical implications are astounding because of this, as negative blood individuals may truly respond differently to medical procedures and heart transplants… I was told that negative blood individuals can not receive transplanted hearts. .For the record my whole family is negative, and my son has 2 extra vertebrae. All of us have at least 90% of the characteristics mentioned in the article above. Top researchers need to get on this subject, since it can prove to be of tremendous help for humanity.


  • Marvin Jones  On July 9, 2012 at 5:43 pm

    Not sure about the Basque alone, but certainly sharp contrast in modern human ‘races” (for lack of better word) and logic would indicate Europeans have a good bit of Neanderthal ancestry…around 100,000 BC, when Homo sapiens supposedly left Africa, sea levels were actually higher than now..they would have had an extremely hard time or interest in migrating through the Levant, much less the pass at the south end of the Red Sea. The Neanderthals were much hardier and were acclimated to cold climates…don’t believe Homo sapiens could have replaced Neanderthals completely, or would have been interested in doing so…especially in the more northern regions….logically, the Homo sapiens that did leave Africa were likely forced, meaning they were less resourceful…if the remaining Africans were more resourceful and had thousand of years head off start in technological development, why were Europeans since BC times far more advanced than the Africans…only an injection of Neanderthal DNA could explain these facts and logic.

    [ David Noel comments: Marvin is quite right that sea-levels in past ages were higher than now, not lower as is currently claimed. The full story is at The Rising Sealevel Myth — Proofs that ocean levels are falling, not rising. ]


  • Gayle Potter  On September 23, 2012 at 10:22 am

    It seems clear to me that north America was populated by quite different streams arriving from the western, Pacific side, and the eastern, Atlantic side. Among the lattter the Basques appear to fit the physiognomy of the mysterious “Veracocha” people who appeared in Peru from nowhere (somewhere to the east) and after a short stay after creating a cult centre at Lake Titicaca, sailed off into the Pacific to settle on Easter Island centuries before the arrival of thye Polynesians. They were characterized by pale skin, red hair, thin lips, long narrow nose and long earlobes, the latter also ascribed to the Basque and immortalized in the famous stone status of Easter Island where they also erected monumental stone masonary in exact replica of that of the Inca.
    Gayle Potter, Perth, Western Australia


  • James Geikie  On September 23, 2012 at 12:53 pm

    Further related reading about Basque genetic origins:
    “Myths of British ancestry”, by Stephen Oppenheimer.


  • Fabio  On October 13, 2012 at 8:00 pm

    Unfortunately most of the native populations of Western Europe were likely absorbed amidst R1b Y-DNA carrier invaders, which we know today originated in the east quite recently, long after cro-magnon settlements in Europe. Given that R1b Y-DNA is the most common in Western Europe, and peaks among Basques, it is highly unlikely that they are a very pure remaining sample of paleolithic populations of the region (neanderthal or not).

    Oddly R1b/R1a is also associated with the introduction of Indo-European languages in Europe, and somehow Basques uniquely managed to resist that.

    Also it seems such invasions didn’t have as much impact on mtDNA as they did on Y-DNA, which suggests that they were mostly men who mixed with the native populations. We do know indo-European invaders dominated bronze and the use of horses, unlike the older inhabitants of the region, so their advantage was enormous.


  • Gary Mc Cutcheon  On October 14, 2012 at 3:52 am

    What is the chance of a male from Scotland being 9% [Neanderthal]?.I dont know my blood type or my Ancestry. I was asked how much percent I thought I was by a psychiatrist.


  • commentmaster  On October 14, 2012 at 6:19 am

    I was surfing the net looking for information about Vikings and such and I came upon your “How the Neanderthals became the Basque’ article. I found it very interesting to read as ancestory and blood lineage interests me greatly. I find the information uncanny in relation to myself and my family – My parents immigrated from England to Australia in the early 70’s. They are both RH Negative. Which means my brother and sisters and myself are all RH Negative.

    We have fair skin and half of us are red haired, green eyed and the other half have dark hair. I haven’t checked if we have an extra vertebra, but I know I have deep analytical abilities and I seem to suffer from the cold far more than other people. None of us have ever suffered from high blood pressure. My brother and sister are tall (over six foot easily) and we all have large skulls (always have to buy the bigger hats).

    My sister and brother also have an interesting genetic inheritance of the biggest thumb-heads i’ve ever seen. And to cap it off our last name is Wildman!
    I’m starting to wonder if we certainly have descended from the Neanderthals!!

    Anyway thanks for the interesting article.

    Rosie Wildman


  • june  On January 6, 2013 at 9:21 pm

    Are we to assume that Rh neg and O bloodtypes through out the population are not descendants of Homo sapiens? Rather a huge leap!

    In addition it is confusing that a bloodtype not of Homo sapiens origin (type O, if one is following your train of thought) is the universal donor and thus is not meant for extinction.

    David Noel comments: Maybe the article did not make the position clear. All humans, whether sapiens, neanderthalensis, or other, have common ancestry. The assumption is made that this early ancestry did not have blood factors for Rhesus Positive, Group A, or Group B. Some branches of humanity later picked up one or more of these factors, and difficulties can arise when couples have unmatched factor sets — Rh+ and Rh-, or transfusing A or B blood to a group O receiver, for example.


  • Ramon  On January 10, 2013 at 9:42 pm

    I’m a 55 year old basque male. I have several odd physical characteristics that I’ve long pondered. I’m nearly 5′ 9″ tall, but my inseam is only 29 inches. I weigh only 220 lb. but I have a 52 inch chest and a 19 inch neck. My hat size is also large – size 8. It almost feels like I’m built more like a gorilla than a human. (ha ha) My wife loves to joke about this. My basque father and grandfather were built the same way.
    I was always good at weight lifting and bench pressed 450 lb. I could leg press 1500 lb. My blood type is O negative too.

    Evidently they now have a DNA blood test to determine the percentage of Neanderthal genomes. It’s already shown the highest levels to be in the north Mediterranean areas – which is close to the Basque country. I wonder if they’ve done any focused testing on Basque DNA samples.

    Now I’m going to crawl back into my man cave – (dragging knuckles as usual)..


  • Lewis Carroll  On January 14, 2013 at 3:58 am

    I find it so amusing that many in the anthropology realm have to eat their words — they so proudly proclaimed about the neanderthal this and that, and now we have not only interbred with them but have a distinct population of people that are their direct descendants. I am of Irish descent and we have the red hair, fair skin, blue eyes, and lot of body hair. I thank the neanderthal for my immune system too — I seldom get colds or the flu, although I have celiac disease and allergies out the wazooo. Keep us updated, I find it interesting and amusing to read because so much has been learned that puts a very different light on human evolution.


  • Jeanne Marie (Gebhardt) Bornefeld  On January 17, 2013 at 7:04 pm

    Super interesting! Yes, red-haired people react differently to foods and medicines. I am highly allergic. I have thought there had to be an explanation that so many have overlooked. I am of Swiss, French and Native American ancestors. These discoveries and science are fascinating. Thank you, Jeanne.


  • Silvia  On February 23, 2013 at 11:43 am

    Fascinating! Some times I have that strong ancient feeling that is very difficult to explain…
    I’m born in Argentina, my ancestors are from Basque.
    my blood is B-, and physically looks are like Che Guevara’s: with a long straight nose, thick eyebrows, strong chin, and long earlobes….
    I have dark hair, but it has red nuances…
    Thank you for the amazing article!


  • jo  On March 16, 2013 at 10:53 am

    The theory that red hair and fair skin was inherited from N people makes sense as that should have increased survival rates of fair skinned mothers who were less likely to have rickets.


    • Enedina  On March 18, 2013 at 4:37 am

      I am full blooded Basque and I am not in any way part Neanderthal. In Basque History the Neanderthals were whatched without by the Basque, but never mating with them. We are part alien (Elves) the everyone knows of us.
      Sorry, but we married our own kind. Royalty has type A+ and that’s where I come from.

      Enedina Diana Walden Celaya

      PS: Buber’s can answer questions too, if need be.


  • Bryce  On March 29, 2013 at 5:35 am

    How about ambidextrousness and left handedness?

    I am ambidextrous and so are several family members, and it seems many of the smartest people I know are left handed. Studies have shown that it is only about average but among famous people and musicians is very common. Since left handedness can be linked with mental retardation it seems to me that if you took out those cases from specific causes it would change the picture.

    Also in general it’s eerie to me how many of the things on the list are family traits, making me wonder if this is one more item that might trace back to neanderthal DNA.


  • Grant  On May 22, 2013 at 2:38 am

    In reading the comments, I see you have seen the DNA research also. On the show Decoding Neanderthals, they showed the most dense concentration and highest DNA regions being in Italy, very close to Basque country. Do you happen to know if any Basque or that region has been tested? I would be curious to see what percent Neanderthal the people in that area are. Maybe it would be the highest concentration and % of DNA. Then they can change the movies to stop showing them as having brown hair. It would be cool to see a video using this latest information and make them red headed!


  • Robert Aiassa  On May 22, 2013 at 9:14 am

    “Australopithecus afarensis of erectus hominid species,”

    Not related ; [Basque or Denisovans hominid] ; Progressive Evolution, of Eurasians or European.

    [Opinion] Theory of Adaptive Interrelations.

    Where the scientists argued in favor she was originally believed Brazilian or Australian, such as {1} Polio-Indian. Africa, is now very unlikely; but she; Lucy; as single [1] human remains found, was likely killed by an animal attack or rare disease. Keep in mind she was only a mere 20yr old., she died. 11,500 BC. Among these bones was an unusual, and undated, calotte (skullcap) that somehow simply disappeared.[2] with all evidence unveiled, but, only few rare artifacts discovered, to supporting cause for survival in the remote caves. Homo erectus is believed to be an “extinct” hominid specie{s}, 70,000 years ago, that originated in East Africa about and lastly, 1.8 to 1.9 million years ago. The migration’s towards the continental drift and lower mountain elevations; as did land masses changed, so did, their ability to survive. The cohabitation{s} of early settlers instinctive needs to [adaptations] of its environment{s} by natural selection became apparent, and then to have had eventually colonized [3.2m] [?] to become a modern civilization.

    [1] There are many varied scientific opinions and reason{s} of their different physical characteristics; such as “Ardi.” her oldest found existed ancestor from about 4.4 million years earlier. The newly announced remains, which in addition to Ardi’s partial {June 11, 2003} skeleton include bones representing at least 36 other individuals, were not at all human like, not chimpanzees, but the cross roads inbetween.

    [OTHER MUMMIFIED FINDINGS] From Egypt, Rome, Greece, Easter islands.

    The oldest known naturally mummified human corpse is a severed head dated merely 6,000 years old, found in 1936 at the site named Inca Cueva. [2] Polio-Indians. In addition to the well-known mummies of Ancient Egypt, deliberate mummification was a feature of several ancient cultures in areas of South America and Asia with very dry climates.

    [{ 1.} Human genealogy analysis; rare; blood types of ethnic cross references have not yet been recorded to date; that could relay information to our distant relatives.]

    [{2} Early homo sepiens, distantly, or then how the species related.]

    THE END.


  • Robert Aiassa  On May 22, 2013 at 10:02 am

    “Closing THE BRIDGE Modern Homo Sepiens: Ice Age.”

    The Early Eurasians: Denisovans hominids / Siberian forebears – China / and North America.

    “Siberian Ice Tundra.”

    [Opinion] Theory of Adaptive Interrelations.

    The recent discoveries in our ancestry found in most nearly all humans; early civilizations{s} along with other well distinguished populated regions, other genetic links that are also being found closely related with the ancient Neanderthals. This thesis, as it explains why the entire species itself, may not be entirely extinct and how their migration{s} became part of modern society played a significant role in the early stages of human evolutionary change. The ice age was just the very beginning to a new world explorations.

    Basque, Spain. with 2,123,000 population; Rh1 , AB, O, the N people., S people, and its later relations with the romanians.

    ([Gene analysis/ from rare and to the most common blood types; North Asians, European and the Druids.)


    “The Later Neanderthals, Ancient Rome, Italy.”

    “OTZI the ICE MAN.”

    Ötzi the Iceman, the Similaun Man, the Man from Hauslabjoch, was actually “Homo tyrolensis,” and the Hauslabjoch mummy) 5,300yrs old intact corpse, of Schnals Valley, Italy. Strong links found closer to modern characteristics in today’s society, and early romanians and thier habitatons throughout european countries.

    Ice Age Child Found in Prehistoric Alaskan Home, written by, Brian Handwerk

    Ancient Alaskan tomb, or burial, [February 25, 2011]. Actual remains and more recent discovery of child body [13,000 yrs BC] was found in small native village just outside a burial ground by a nearby community.

    “Siberia’s Ushki Lake and Ancient Denisovans hominid”

    [Evidence co-habitations recently confirmed.]

    They are Paleolithic-era , Denisovans., and Siberian. Asians interbred with ancient Denisovans, a species from Siberia. Migrated with at least two other known groups of ancient nu’ humans are believed to have that direct ancestral ties closely to the Era’ Neanderthals and how their possibly linked to native American cultures.

    “Footprints show first Americans came nearly 25,000 years earlier?”

    “The Asian North Pacific – Siberia.” – website links and recent research.

    The Arlington Springs Woman, lived during the end of the Pleistocene era when large herds of bison and woolly mammoths roamed the grassy plains and other extinct native American animals such as camels, horses, and saber-toothed cats were still around. Thus explains; their physical occupation of habitat(s) resources and endured more to less severe climate changes. The remains of Pleistocene-era animals have been discovered on Santa Rosa Island where the Arlington Springs woman was found. In 1994, the world’s most complete skeleton of a pygmy mammoth, a dwarf species, was also excavated here existed for millions of years prior to human establishment.

    Denisovans hominid., the conclusion.

    “Denisovans Hominid.” ^ 375,000 00 BC ^ (* Jaw bones; Feb, 7, 2013) years old fossils recently found in Siberian Ice Tundra of co-habitation with other more recent ancestors and studies of artifacts revealed their survival skills. Their progressive stage{s}of evolution, and how ancestors learned to adapt to the conditions the harsh living enviroments. [Adapt] [The progressive stages of human evolution] Skulls; and brains of findings with anceint neanderthals are now being compared to other modern hominid sepiens.]

    “Evidence strongly suggests that they did migrated with other hominid specie{s} still found are in some parts of the worlds largest populations.”

    [North Asia – Siberia to their surviving the ice age period, and isolate tundra.]

    {PLEASE READ}: related links.

    The Early Eurasians: [Cohabitations] and modern mankind.

    They believed to have adamant hunters of extinct red deer; bison; and were also of natural skin, hair, and eye color; cohabitation{s}; and they all migrated by traveling back and forth from Asia to Europe during the entire ice age periods.

    The earliest date 13,000 BC and the location of the woman’s remains on the island adds weight to an alternative theory that some early settlers may have constructed boats and migrated from “Asia” by sailing down the Pacific coast. The new date makes her “remains older,” than any other known human skeleton found so far in North America. That very well could established the building blocks of early habitations of native American tribes.

    [The North American Indian] Scandinavian Peninsula.

    Denisovans hominid {Alaska} with all have recent physical changes also being proven in anthropology by using carbon radiation technology.

    {a} The study of gene origins, blood types, DNA that by forensic examination, and their actual distant ancestral linage.

    The Original (Phil C. Orr) who was an anthropologist – and forensic science. The remains of the so-called “Arlington Springs Woman” were recently reanalyzed by the latest radiocarbon dating techniques and were found to be approximately 13,000 years old. The new discovery challenges the popular belief that the first colonists to North America arrived at the end of the last ice age about 11,500 years ago by crossing a Bering land bridge that connected Siberia to Alaska and northwestern Canada.

    [Theory of Adaptation] They still exist today with other indigenous hominid species and co-habitats in other vast parts the worlds regions.

    {Plausible}: ??

    This is theory not just applied to human beings in general; but also these facts point out how its related into all different walks of life, that including, the animal kingdoms.

    [Distant relatives in the animal kingdom]: ?

    “The Early Migrations just like birds that fly south for the winter survival from the cold climate and their instinctive natural selection.”

    From Elephants to the Wooly Mammoth, Red Deer, and Saber Tooth Tigers.

    Did they also really all go extinct, as once believed? or is science still proving what was originally believed the impossible? Like the very existence of Neanderthals?!


  • Dee  On June 11, 2013 at 8:02 pm

    Before the blood typing and DNA evidence, there has been quite a bit of evidence of mixing among Neanderthal and Homo sapiens. For example, at the archaeological sites near Mt. Carmel, the ancient population uncovered there appeared to have mixed characteristics. This is true of many other sites in Europe.


  • eblab  On June 15, 2013 at 1:59 am

    Probably for the better, most people are genetic mixtures. However, we must accept that the sources of our diverse genetic elements are largely lost to antiquity. Current technology can only peer into our ancient past to distinguish dim and distant shadows.

    David Noel comments: It’s true that our genetic past is murky, but it’s getting clearer. My son had his genome investigated by 23andMe (, and among the results was that he had 3.2% of his DNA from Neanderthals. He gave me a test with 23andMe for Christmas, it said I had 3.0%! (For anyone interested in their own genetic profile, the more analyses 23andMe do, the more we will find out about our species’ genetic ancestry – a test cost about $100 plus courier fees).


  • Nelson  On November 9, 2013 at 1:34 pm

    I came upon your article by searching for “Basque Neaderthal connection” after coming to the conclusion independently from my own lay study of genetics and linguistics. This is, in my mind, one of the most logical explanations for the genetic and linguistic uniqueness of these people. In addition to the negative Rh factor, Red hair, and perhaps fair-skin, I theorize that high functioning autism (previously known as Asperger’s Syndrome) may in fact be a phenotypic expression of an underlying Neaderthal genetic reality. In other words, people with high functioning autism do not have any disorder. What may in fact be occurring is that these individuals have a higher percentage of Neanderthal genes which have been “switched-on”. My theory is not that a person with a higher percentage of Neaderthal genes is more likely to have some form of autism, but rather that the autism is stemming from some amount of these genes being “switch-on” or activated. A maladaptive response to the Sapiens-Neanderthal hybridization theory could be full-blown low functioning autism, thus providing another feature of reproductive isolation. I would be interested in finding the percentage of Neaderthal genes in the Basque people as well as the percentage of Neanderthal genes in people with high-functioning autism. My interest in the subject springs from possessing Basque blood from my mother’s side and having to deal with High functioning autism issues in the family.


  • Bo johnson  On December 1, 2013 at 4:59 am

    I’m glad I found this site. Five years of research – A1-D2 gene, fewer dopamine receptors, stuttering, left handedness, twins in family, cyst at end of spine, primitive chin, split-nerve in chin,TMJ, hyper glutamate condition from overactive fight or flight response, excess glutamate – cells can’t maintain CA+2 homeostasis, lone A-FIB, Left retro aortic vain (primitive structure), high IQ but learning delays. Family from Denmark, Germany ( Hanover-Kings Speech) Poland all within 400 mi. Father 5’10” 240 lbs, powerful legs, I’m 6’4” 240, son’s 6’5” 280, 6’4”230 & 6’3”240. Daughter 5’2” 240 all green-blue eyes, blonde, fair-skin. Low blood pressure, allergies, large brow, adhd, ocd, addiction, tourette syndrome, asperger’s. That’s me & my family. My theory is Neanderthal had a more asymmetrical brain but an overactive fight or flight response leading to an over abundance of extra cellular glutamate and dopamine and a lysosomal storage disorder (misfolded protein) body can’t remove excess L-glutamate and dopamine leading to neurological & autoimune problems.This glutamate dysregulation leads to the destruction & lack of development of white matter in the left hemisphere between the ages of 2-5 yrs.The right hemisphere overcompensates for the damage and produces more white matter & also takes over speech & left hand dominance.


    • Rosemary Farrell  On April 27, 2015 at 11:04 pm

      Thank you for this. Glutamate receptor problems. Finally, after two decades of illness I found glutamate dysregulation was causing my migraine condition and long term illnesses. Now with your post I can see it more clearly.
      DNA testing shows I have 3% Neanderthal from my mother and my father has 3% Neanderthal from his mother and he is Basque/Irish. Because I was adopted at birth and only found my father in 2012, I was unaware of any family similarities, but now I know – he is left handed and ambidextrous. He has the Rh factor and lost many babies with his second wife. I think he is ADHD. My daughter certainly is. HE and his children are all sulphur sensitive, which explains the glutamate receptor issues. He is highly intelligent. His father an inventor. Overactive fight and flight is characteristic of all of us. Low blood pressure. Brother with aspergers, ocd, and addiction. High IQ’s with learning delays are a feature, although I went on to complete a PhD. YOur post is wonderful. thank you again.

      David Noel comments: More good data. On allergies and digestive problems, you may be interested in :
      “Innerlandia — The Unexplored Continent Within Your Body (Is Improved Public Hygiene Ruining Your Health?)” (


      • Rosemary Farrell  On April 27, 2015 at 11:06 pm

        I forgot to say that the image of the modern day Basque woman is my exact profile!!!! It is also the profile of my daughter and my aunt. The Neanderthal profile had many similarities of my father.


  • Donna  On January 1, 2014 at 2:15 am

    I’ve done my DNA test and states I am from Cro magon /neanderthal /Basque , western Blood Type is RH -0 I was born with strawberry blonde reddish hair, bluegreen-yellow eyes, fair skin, as I grew up I now have dark brown hair and darker skin my eyes are still the same… The Basques also had ties with Spanish when they came to America which is how native american’s came to be..i have researched my ancestors all the way to the beginning, so I am pure native / Basque…
    Certain things through out my life I always wondered about why I couldn’t wear watches without them stopping. or walk into a room and the light bulb would blow out etc…I am proud of who and what I am !!


    • Robin  On January 1, 2014 at 12:37 pm

      This is a very interesting theory. I am A negative, have fair skin and blue/green/gold eyes. While I stop watches and other electronics I have attributed it my near death experience? I am not basque but Polish, French, Irish, and Cherokee Indian.
      Has anyone else heard that negative blood individuals reject transplanted organs?



      • James  On January 30, 2014 at 6:44 am

        Robin, get real. Most people accept that the sources of our diverse genetic heritage remain hidden in the mists of time.


    • Carolyn Hatchett  On February 20, 2015 at 3:26 am

      I understand, I also could never wear a watch! It is so great to find other people like me. I am Irish, English, Native American and German Jew. Reddish Brown hair, green eyes, highly mechanical and analytical and intuitive, to say the least. And I broke my “tailbone” at the age of 14! I thought everybody had a tailbone. The picture of the Neanderthal child looks exactly like my left handed Grandchild and my left handed niece. I should post pictures. I am O-, and I feel like I’ve found my family, lol!


  • Edwin  On January 30, 2014 at 5:39 am

    I am descended from French Huguenot immigrants who fled the Basque area via my maternal grandfather and I have O rh- blood type. The evidence of a possible connection with Neanderthal interests me.


  • Arshad M.  On March 28, 2014 at 7:59 pm

    A very fascinating article indeed. Please allow me to share with you my views on primates relationship with modern humans. As contrast to Bonobo or chimps, Rhesus Macaque looks more closely related to modern human. Macaque has feet very similar to humans as compared to Chimps. Also the color of their fur and eyes explains the fair color and blond hair in humans. Macaque social behavior is also more closely related to humans.


    • James  On March 30, 2014 at 6:17 am

      Despite minor superficial characteristics of the Rhesus, monkey DNA is far removed from that of the Neanderthal compared to the almost identical resemblance of Neanderthal DNA to that of the modern human. Current scientific thought is that the Bonobo, Chimpanzee or Orang-utan is the closest animal “relative” to a humans. (Incidentally, recent comparison of human and pig genomes has revealed very many biological similarities.)


      • Enedina Diana Walden Celaya  On March 30, 2014 at 7:27 am

        The Celaya Family were head of the Basque Families, and they told you who you would marry!

        My grandfather said that my cousin’s surnames are named after countries, town’s, cities, states; we were engaded in wars as Soldiers of Fortune, and we got land-grants, fortune, and royalty tittles. We fought for the Armenian Empire, Assyrian Empire, Persian Empire, Greek Empire, Roman Empire, Ottaman Empire and Asian-Minor (the English broke all the countries up, and all the royalties ran in fear of losing their lives, and money, because of being royal (my grandfather came to the USA-Santa Barbara, CA (a Basque colony) as a young man (he was a prince of Asia-Minor, his sister’s/brothers were princess/princes and his father and mother the same. My great-great grand-father was a Shah in Adana, now Turkey

        All my cousin’s at one-time were attached to my surname Celaya (religious meaning is The Chellis of God and all the Families come from (Chellis – Cel and God – Aya)

        My family has been in every three religions of “GOD (Basque call him “ZEU to the first Aryan’s) The three religion’s are Judaism (Persian Safaric-Jews; the lost tribe of the Hebrew-Religion), then Christianity (Roman Catholic), and invaded by the Moor’s (Persian’s, Turkish, and Barbers from Morocco, and Arabs from the desert of Arabia, we became Islamic, and then in 1492 back to Christianity. We married back and forth as royalty.

        The Basque language comes from no other language on earth(and that has been proven from Linguistic’s, but you will know the Basque language is spoken in Heaven ,

        Please get a Basque Book, there are a few books written.

        If, you like hand ball, well quess what it comes from the Basque! 🙂


  • Philip Mendixko  On April 16, 2014 at 5:33 pm

    My mother and father were born and raised in the towns of Hazparren and Heleta respectively.
    They met and married here in the USA
    I was raised to speak, read, and write our language.
    I found the article fascinating. I am not educated in the fields of DNA physical evolution and related sciences.
    Reading these studies findings was very enlightening.
    What really blew me away were some other theories and facts mentioned in the article, that I had actually observered and have used frequently in trying to explain to my non basque friends that I was of the opinion that “before France was France and Spain was Spain, the Basques were already Basque and already there”
    Words (especially nouns) used in Euskara to describe the most basic tools a human uses, like paper, pencil, eating utensils, glassware, faucets, toilets etc are completely rooted in French and Spanish.
    Words for things like vegetables, specific family members, rudimentary crude building tools like hammer, stone, wood, axe etc are completely Basque.
    The theory that I use (again I stress I have no formal education in any of these fields) to explain basque and their language is that basques were in place, living within the means and the raw materials and available resources of their known world.
    As the outside world changed around them, and then eventually encroached upon them, the basques were introduced to things like plates and bowls, pencils paper lighters etc.
    Being as adaptable and as smart as they are, Basques embraced the new discoveries and technologies bringing them into the fold of their daily lives.


  • Pat  On May 25, 2014 at 1:17 am

    I married into a Basque family. I am amazed at these unique people and can associate with what everyone is writing here. I even learned a little more, my children are very Basque in appearance and have many Basque traits. The more I discover about the Basque the more interested I get. I now wonder if having an overactive fight or flight might be true. It seems the men in the family are very strong willed and very reactive. Really great to find this site.


  • L.P.-G., M.D.  On November 18, 2014 at 2:16 am

    I thoroughly enjoyed your expose vis-a-vis the Basque-Neanderthal connection. I am O-negative blood type, possess a Mensa level I.Q. and my DNA analysis confirms that I am in the 90th percentile as far as the Neanderthal matter. On another note, my family background also reveals many high I.Q. individuals plagued by the malady of being ‘mind blind’ which is a politically correct way of describing the autism spectrum. I shall blame the Neanderthal blood, though our quirkiness is what makes us utterly charming!


  • lucinda cook  On January 14, 2015 at 5:26 pm

    I am a native Indonesian-speaker, who exchanged basque/Indonesian lessons with my native Basque-speaker girlfriend for five years, because the two languages sound hilariously similar. (I mistranslated whole sentences spoken between her and her sister, who I lived with).
    Structurally, Basque is very similar to Indonesian/Malay in that it is made up of many prefixes and suffixes. Please note : you are incorrect in leaving out the prefixes!
    Other similarities are the vowel/consonant/vowel/consonant structure typical of Australasian languages.
    Some similar vocabulary : Dunia(world) , which is also Irish (Dabhn) for world.

    I have fourteen languages in my head /hands, and am a musician who enjoys the unique music of Michael Laboa, Euskadi musician.
    Euskadi, from the dialect of Ondarroa, Spain.

    Yours sincerely,
    Lucinda Cook

    does not use indefinite articles


  • DAVID McCORMICK  On April 14, 2015 at 8:03 pm

    Your article is fascinating. My RH blood group is A+. My halpogroup tree information is: R1b1a2a1b4 and L-21. My mitochondrial DNA group is H14a. My earliest known male line relative was a resident of County Derry, in Northern Ireland. My mother’s female descent appears to go to Rhineland – Switzerland – Germany area. I am confident that DNA research may be helpful in areas of medical treatment. I encourage more study of this subject. Thanks again for a fascinating article.


  • Arnold Gonzalez Pedrogo  On June 11, 2015 at 12:14 pm

    checkout in youtube John Hawks Ancient genomes 2: Neandertals within us
    in 9:00 they talk about red hair genome MC1R and melanin that turns color.


  • Honesty Fenix  On July 9, 2015 at 6:55 pm

    Hi David. After living in Spain for 13 years I came into contact with many Basques (B). I reached similar conclusions about the B approx. at the same time you published your article in 2002. However, stereotyping is not always helpful. I found Bs who were not very smart, others average, others very smart. They are though, recognized in Spain as the strongest people in the country and they obviously are. They are also heavy eaters and drinkers, another verified fact, not a hearsay or assumption.
    They tend to be on the short side in height, with thick eyebrows and there was still at the time (the 1970’s) such a thing as a recognizable B type with a different face from any other European. I have tried to go against my own hypothesis (and yours!) but cannot find any solid scientific arguments against it. Our theory makes sense: The Rh-, the physical type, the physical strength, the unique
    language, which I perceive (I have studied many different languages) as a
    “strong” language in the sense of how it is pronounced (German would be, for
    me, a strong language, in this sense. Not so French, Spanish, Russian or
    Chinese, for example). Of course, I am aware that this among scientists would be considered a subjective observation.
    I have little doubts these days about the Bs being the descendants of the Neanderthals. Please keep up your good work and best of luck to you in
    your efforts. Regards from Atlanta, USA.


  • curtis  On August 8, 2015 at 8:42 pm

    MY mother was o- and father a+. 6 rh+ children. so much for part of this theory.


    • commentmaster  On August 10, 2015 at 3:42 am

      Curtis, since around the 1940s, medical treatments have been available to avoid the Rh- mother, Rh+ father, problem. Very possibly your mother had such treatments….


  • mflavio  On September 21, 2015 at 1:03 am

    To understand why Rh negative blood may have emerged you must understand how we became human. That´s mandatory reading ” How neanderthal predation made us humans” by australian author Danny Vendramini]

    The central question is ” why on earth, evolution would make a mom reject her baby inside the womb, depending on his/her blood fator ? That´s something to really think about.


    • saynow  On September 21, 2015 at 6:20 am

      Folks, most evidence is long lost in the ancient past for anything but conjecture today. However, conjecture is a good thing if it adds to an evolving picture of the lives of our far distant ancestors so long ago.


  • Sean O'Sullivan  On November 27, 2015 at 7:55 pm

    I had a discussion today with a linguist friend about the origins of the Basque language. Apparently, it is a mystery, and mysteries fascinate me. I couldn’t believe that there is no apparent link with other languages, so I googled it a bit, to learn that Basque is a pre indo-european language. So far so good, but not very helpful. Then I had a flash of inspiration – supposing the Basque language had descended from the Neanderthals (not inconceivable given the timing), so I googled Basque and Neanderthal, and came upon this fascinating discourse. Thank you to the author, and to most of the respondents who have pushed the boat out further. Keep up the good work! To the respondent who strenuously rejects any link between Basque and Neanderthal, but claims a noble elf-like link, I say good luck, and that, oh yes, I am proud to be Neanderthal!


    • Nick Veltjens  On November 28, 2015 at 5:53 am

      I don’t know how advanced the Grammar and Syntex of the Basque language are, and whether it could support an advanced and highly developed culture. My thoughts are, that if one could recognise such qualities or capacitiy in that language, then it may just be possible that it and the Basques are related to the people of Atlantis that had lived on that island until is was ditroyed by volcanic activity around, if not previsely, on 5 June 8498 BCP at 13 hours.*
      *) see Otto Muck “The secret of Atlantis, page 254 1978 edition).
      Otto Muck suggests that Atlantis’ dimise was caused by a wayward Asteroid put out its normal orbit by the constellation of Earth, our moon, and Venus on that day. It crashed at an angle near Florida, and, among other things, started the eruption of vulcanos along the juncture between the African and American Plates, where Atlantis was, and sank it as a result.
      The timing of this is well before written history, but has references to it in Egyption and Chinese oral history.
      Their language may have been developed completely separately from all other languages as their culture predated all.


    • David McCormick  On November 28, 2015 at 1:49 pm

      I do not know that there are extant examples of the language, but apparently the Picts, called the “Fir Bolg” (in Gaelic) spoke a different tongue that the Celtic Gaels. I had assumed, perhaps incorrectly, the Picts (of eastern Scotland) were of a Teutonic or Indo-European origin, but maybe not. There is discussion of “red haired” Picts by contemporary Roman.historians like Tacitus (the son-in-law of Roman general and governor of Britain – Agricola circa 80 AD). He likely was talking about British tribes in mid-Britain (Brigantes).. I just thought I’d mention that observation of the Romans.. While there may be surviving stone pictographs in Scotaland (and Orkneys), I do not believe any written literature (in caves) of the Pictish tribes has survived to preserve the language., These Picts might be a DNA mix of antecedents. They were tribal, not just one amorphous mass of humanity in Scotland. .


      • Nick Veltjens  On November 29, 2015 at 12:04 am

        The other unusual thing about the Basques is that they are the global centre of the Rhesus negative blood group. If one looks at a global map of the distribution of this trait, it shows Northern Spain as its most dense centre, with a diminishing distribition progressively from that center with no other concentrations. Interesting is also that there appears to be a higher relative density along the West coast of Ireland, but this may be because of the Armada.
        If Atlantis was destroyed around 8,000 BCP, then those people could well have developed a language completely apart from any other, as the other regions of the world did not have become urbanised and could therefore not have had the need for a developed language with grammar and syntex or, for that matter, abstract terms. The Australian Aboriginees, whose culture is from tens of thousands of years before that event did not have a word for “time”, and their worldview was not involving abstract understanding, but spirits that were (and still are) attached to objects in the landscape or in the sky.
        According to the Chinese, there had been people visiting them around 9,000 BCP, wearing “light reflecting clothes”, which could imply that they had an advanced technology resulting from urban living (with resulting specialisation) well ahead of everyone else.


      • Sean O'Sullivan  On November 29, 2015 at 6:44 pm

        According to Irish mythology the Fir Bolg (Bagmen) were one of three major pre-Celtic migrations into Ireland. They were termed thus allegedly because their main job was carrying earth in bags to build the solar and lunar observatory passage mounds for the Tuatha De Danann. The third migration, the Milesians, can be fairly confidently traced back to Northern Spain, and that is probably from whence the other two originated also.
        Any subsequent Celtic migration was not major, but sufficiently technologically advanced to influence both language, culture and art. The Gaelic variation of the new language survives also in the Highlands and Islands, and the Isle of Man. Little is still known of the Picts except that it appears that there was substantial intermarriage between them and the Gaels, so they probably had something approaching a common culture. However, apart from some early DNA results there is little actual historical substantiation of this scenario, although to me it seems plausible.

        I started this particular journey with the mad supposition that descent from Neanderthal cultures might explain the otherwise inexplicable Basque language (after all, the last ‘pure’ Neanderthals are only supposed to have died out in western Europe some 26 000 years ago). Trying Google to see if there were similar ‘madcap’ ideas around brought me to the author of this piece, and the many interesting contributions supporting it. While I am somewhat distrustful of mythology and careful not to let any pre-conceived ideas over-ride the evidence it is fascinating to get ideas and experience from thinkers around the world, whether I agree in whole or in part with them. Modern technology gives us an unprecedented opportunity to share knowledge and theories around the world. Great to find this forum.


      • Jay Gee  On November 30, 2015 at 12:05 am

        It seems the Picts arrived much earlier than others in the British Isles and, unlike people who came to Ireland, were probably from an origin other than the Iberian peninsular. Apparently, waves of later settlers had absorbed the Pictish culture by the end of the first millennium.


  • commentmaster  On November 28, 2015 at 6:43 am

    David Noel comments: I don’t think that there was any special connection between the Basques and Atlantis, although both may have been active at the same time. In Gavin Menzies’ book “The Lost Empire Of Atlantis: History’s greatest mystery revealed”. (2011). he gives some convincing evidence that “Atlantis” was based on the early Minoan civilization, destroyed by the huge earthquake and tidal wave which broke up most of the (now Greek) island of Santorini (Thera), around 1500 BC.


    • Nick Veltjens  On November 28, 2015 at 8:07 am

      Yes, I read that book too, and found it a very well researched study; yet I do not believe that is is related to Atlantis, as that was, according to Solon, around 10,000 BCP. The only link it could have had with Atlantis was that the Mioans may have been decendents of the Atlantis people, as they too were advanced in metalurgy and navigation, and visited North America for their pure copper, only to find a similar end their forbears when Thera exploded and sent the destructive Sunami also to their main island. Perhaps the Phoenicians were their final decendens..


  • Sean O'Sullivan  On November 29, 2015 at 7:09 pm

    While I respect your views on the origins of Atlantis, and bearing in mind the uncertainties of history, never mind mythology, what evidence exists so far suggests that the cataclysmic event recorded originated on the island of Santorini, and that the resultant volcanic tsunami wiped out the Minoan civilization, which was one of the more advanced of its era.

    Having said that, I doubt whether the Minoan civilization could have had any direct influence on the building of the extraordinary astronomical devices in Ireland and the British Isles. For example, Newgrange in Ireland not only determines the winter solstice but seems to be one of the earliest, if not the earliest, example of a camera obscura. A unique stone slit, built above the passage entrance which was sealed when required, allows still (even after 5 000 years) a beam of sunlight from the rising sun to illuminate a series of rock engravings at the end of a long passage. When discovered in recent times, this device contained a couple of small round boulders, which could have been used to focus the light to dramatic effect, enabling a picture (albeit upside down!) of the outside horizon to be projected on the end wall. The rock carvings are abstract, and some experts believe that they were types of maps.

    There must be similar amazing examples throughout Europe and elsewhere that have yet to come to light. So the quest for the originators will remain fascinating!


  • Richard Boddington  On February 17, 2016 at 11:36 am

    Very absorbing and an interesting glimpse of what may well have been our long and winding history with our cousins. Keep up the momentum.


  • Jordan  On July 24, 2016 at 10:24 am

    Thank you for the interesting article. I had the same theory about Basque-Neanderthal history that stemmed from my interest in psychopathy and its possible genetic links to Neanderthal bloodlines.

    My expertise lies within the field of psychology. Although the officially accepted definition and theory at this point in time puts Asperger’s Syndrome on the autism spectrum, as a psychopath myself I see a very close link with Asperger’s and it appears that it is a different possible expression of genes, with the main difference being an opposite level of cognitive/emotional empathy. My anecdotal evidence suggests a link with both these personality types/syndromes and Neanderthal traits.

    The over-active fight or flight response ties in well with this theory too, as it is a core feature of many genetically predetermined examples of sociopathy…it is the neurological mechanism that kicks sociopathic development into gear. Anecdotally, I note that red heads have a reactionary sensitivity and lower emotionality on average which also ties in to this theory.

    My intuitive grasp of current Neanderthal information and theories together with my personal knowledge/history and my knowledge/understanding of psychopathy put all three in the same ball park. I know I rate high in Neanderthal genes, due to family members being tested, I know this lies on my father side and I am over 3.5% Neanderthal in genetic origin. Red hair in the family, blue eyes, fair skin, high intelligence, high analytical skills, a hunter brain type with ADD/ADHD, a genetic difference with an extra type of th larger vertebrae in the bottom of the spine, I look like the pictures of Neanderthals, family lines with high strength and large barrel chests in the all adds up and feels right.

    All the best, keep up the good work.


  • Rodney Zingel  On September 12, 2016 at 11:21 am

    I like your article very much and the comments of others verify your statements. We H. sapiens have a common ancestor female from about 200,000 years ago. We also have a common male ancestor from about 70,000 years ago. H. sapiens was brought to near extinction when the Toba Mega-Volcano erupted in Indonesia and sent about 3,000 Cu Km of Earth into the atmosphere, leaving a massive Caldera. It caused acid rain and an Ice age.
    The humans that survived, of whom we are all related to, were Black and were Ethiopian types. From them all man on earth have survived. We can say this is the basic man with his A, B, AB and Rh+ attributes physique, neurotransmitters etc. This man survived, all the rest were not smart enough to do so or the conditions were just too shocking. Neanderthal man, with his specific attributes, intelligence, being used to cold conditions and being white and sturdy, also survived.
    We must remember, we had a common female ancestor, and all our Mitochondrial DNA come from her. It must have had something special! Neanderthal man could pregnant a female H.sapiens woman, but the contrary was sterile, thus we do not have Neanderthal mitochondria. In this way Neanderthal genes were deposited into the H. sapiens genome, with H. sapiens cytoplasm..
    With the better genes surviving from Neanderthal due to selection, to suit the new terrain and climate, different races developed as different Neanderthal traits in one region would survive. We would have picked up a lot of Neanderthal language as we could converse with them, but they had such a vocal structure that they could not easily say what we say. They would also have a thunderous squeaky voice. Although we individually have max 4% Neanderthal genes, in H. sapiens we can harvest 20% of his genome.
    We H. sapiens were more prolific and armed with the beneficial genes of survival donated by Neanderthal, we crowded him out. I would also think that we more immune to disease and supplied diseases which we could withstand, whereas I would no be surprise if he was exterminated by them, We being the carriers and by spreading disease to them.
    Basques being in an Isolated area, were more able to survive and retain more of the Neanderthal benefits of extra intelligence and big strong bodies etc. and with modern medicine be able to cope with being susceptible to disease.
    Bad things we get from Neanderthal may be; a dysfunctional the Oxytocin receptor gene, which makes some races self-conscious and autistic or the Chrm 2 gene which makes us prone to addictions and many more such problems. But thanks to Neanderthal who gives us diversity and survival attributes, it’s just a pity that donating genes, according to me, resulted in his demise.


  • domschunker  On January 22, 2017 at 1:11 pm

    Great article thanks. Living in Spain I have been to the French and Spanish basque regions and the people are indeed hugely strong and with a dry ironic humour found in the Gaelic people.

    You have explained why genetically Neanderthals may have been at a disadvantage but what a shame.

    Has there been any study on the possible genetic similarities between basques and Australian aboriginals and prior to that people of the Indian subcontinent?


  • Ariel Chaisson  On January 26, 2017 at 4:17 pm

    Uh hi, I am basque both my parents are
    I have RH- blood entirely, extra vertebrae
    And We are NOT a subspecies.
    Also did you know basque people have a IQ of over well over the average homsapien? We usually have an IQ according to valid studies of over 130-140 usually a genius IQ we also have a richer history due to being around much longer than homsapiens also we are NOT Neanderthals Neanderthals share a common ancestor with homosapiens, we. do NOT we are decsended according studies from reptiles hence the extra vertebrae or tailbone and surviving in colder temperatures please check the validity of your article before making theories thank you

    Ariel Chaisson
    PS FYI most basque people are located in Kiasso some came from Spain some did not


  • Steve B.  On March 15, 2017 at 8:43 am

    In the article it was said that Neanderthals would have had Reddish Hair and Light Skins and O Negative Blood.

    The Irish have Reddish Hair and Light Skins. It would be interesting to see what Ancestry and 23 & Me could find with their DNA searches.

    My Mom’s temperature always was lower than Normal. She was part Irish and English and Others and had O Negative Blood. (She never had her DNA tested)

    It is too bad that Ancestry.Com decided to retire Y-DNA and mtDNA tests. It would be interesting where they would lead.


  • Bill Hazlett  On May 8, 2017 at 3:48 pm

    Very interesting ! I have 42% Basque in my genetic code taken 3 yrs.after genome was broken. History of redheads and many other traits ! Always sensed/felt my thinking etc.was different . Irish/English/Eastern Euro ancestry known prior to DNA test — fascinated and relived to know my origins !
    Thanks for your article.
    W.R. H.


  • Suzie  On August 30, 2017 at 8:37 pm

    I had my DNA tested with both Ancestry and 23 and Me. The 23 and Me results showed that out of all the people tested in their pool I was in the highest percentile for Neanderthal DNA. Unfortunately my father’s side cannot be tested. He had siblings but his parents put him up for adoption, and perhaps some others too in the 1900s, likely because they were poor and unable to care for them. When I get time I will trace records as I do have his parents names on a certificate and will send my data to one of the companies that can break it out further. I would like to try to separate my maternal to have a tiny idea of what is paternal. I am primarily Scandinavian, with a small percentage of Yakut and some percentages similar to those living in the Mediterranean region. My father looked a bit like Tesla and could tan darker. 🙂 East Asians also have Neanderthal DNA, so it could come from Yakut. I have lower than the average temperature, I tolerate cold very well, I have autoimmune markers now as seen in Lupus. From there my blood is A+ and I look Scandinavian for the most part. It’s fascinating how much we have intermingled and changed and all the wonderful combinations there are in the world.

    Reading Ariel Chaisson’s comment, if she wants to say her ancestors are descended from lizards, you go girl. Not me. LOL!


    • Jeanne Bornefeld  On August 31, 2017 at 9:47 pm

      I was struck by the Yakut in your DNA. We had no idea when it showed up in my husband’s 23 and Me report. We were always told they were German. Well I have been working on that and they were Prussian in the area by Warsaw. His father is very olive skinned, black hair, long acquiline (sp)nose, of spare muscular build, not Asian eyes, but close to it. Interesting.


  • David Scott  On May 14, 2018 at 10:51 pm

    uh uh…. you are completely wrong.

    Antediluvian’s fleeing Atlantis in boats landed in various places, modern day Basque being one place. Many others landed on places such as Ireland and Britain. The Celts and Basques were from Atlantis.

    Fair skinned, red hair, fair hair…. blue green eyes and RH negative blood types – advanced and superior.

    If they came across Neanderthals, they would of possibly stayed well away from those grotesque under developed spear chucking creatures.


  • Peter Dunphy  On January 13, 2019 at 7:14 pm

    I am completing a thorough analysis of the whole Y Search Data bank and I tend to agree with the comments made by the original article. I think that the Y haplogroup diferences are too large to be explained away in such a short time and with such a low world population level until neolithic times, making mutation a very slow process indeed. Y chromesomes contribute only male gender so there is very little to be lost or gained by changing an areas dominant male haplogroups. “First come first served as Openheimer comments and the Neanderthal males were already firmly in possession of Europe, with speach and navigation skills, (Neanderthal tools were found on Crete). They most likely started marrying S females who for the reasons stated in the article outbred the N ladies except in those areas like the Basque country, Ethiopia and High Atlas where Rhetus negative persists in large numbers.Evidently those characteristics most useful to survival in a cold high latitude climate such as light skin and heavy build would be passed on in the mix and all the mixed first born females who were not Rhetus negative would have had a very strong chance of taking over from their N mothers and outsripping further outside competition. That mix probably kicked off in Kurdistan and spread across Europe over several thousands of years with the Advent of Cromagnon.

    I also agree with the Chinese and others that their peoples have conserved charateristics of their “prehuman”ancestors. Infact it is now recognized that SE Asians and Oceanias have a full 12% “prehuman” from Central Asia.

    Here in Spain the Basque country is jokingly called troll country and they are considered very different to other Spaniards, more like Scottsmen, Hardy and extremely tough! Maybe our collective Eurasian folk memories of “others” are of full blood prehuman lines that lived on in remote areas until former times, However as with the Anglo-Saxon invasions of England their is no evidence of Blitzkrieg just of gradual racial blending along established trade routes. 5% N Mtdna is equivalent to having one N greatgrandmother! Peter Dunphy


    • Honesty  On January 16, 2019 at 1:59 pm

      Hi Peter, you end up with a VERY interesting comment: that 5% (or even 2-4% as it’a usually stated) is actually VERY HIGH, not low, considering that the N supposedly disappeared at least 10K years ago.
      Now, concerning the conversion of N into B (Basques), should that have truly been the case, then B should show a higher % of N genes than other populations. I’m not sure that is the case. Equally, N should show a consistently higher % of Rh– blood type, and again, not sure that is in fact the case. If you do know these two last arguments to be true, then please do send me their sources of info. Thank you for your sincere effort and for giving others the chance to comment. It enriches all of us. Regards from Atlanta, Honesty.


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